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Reading / Beginning

What beginning reading programs* have been proven to help students in grades K-1 to succeed? To find out, this review summarizes evidence on four types of programs designed to improve beginning reading achievement:

  • Reading Curricula (Curr), such as Open Court Reading, Reading Street, and other standard and alternative textbooks.
  • Instructional Technology (IT), such as Waterford, Lexia Learning Systems, and Writing to Read.
  • Instructional Process Programs (IP), such as cooperative learning and phonological awareness training.
  • Combined Curriculum and Instructional Process Programs (Curr & IP), such as Success for All and Direct Instruction.

Full Report
Slavin, R.E., Lake, C., Chambers, B., Cheung, A., & Davis, S. (2009, June). Effective beginning reading programs. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University, Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education.


* Note: This review focuses on initial (non-remedial) reading programs. A review of research on programs for struggling readers is also available on the BEE..


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Full Report Upper Elementary Reading Full Report (PDF, 816 KB)
Educator's Summary Upper Elementary Reading Educator's Summary (PDF, 354 KB)


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