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Reading /Struggling Readers

Full Report pdf (2 MB) || Educator's Summary pdf (464 KB) || Educator's Guide pdf (584 KB)

Top-Rated Programs

Listed below are currently available programs.

Program Ratings
Strong Evidence of Effectiveness
Rating Program Type Description Contact / Website
strong evidence Success for All CIP+TT Provides extensive school staff training and materials focused on cooperative learning, phonics, and a rapid pace of instruction. Also provides tutoring to struggling children, mostly first graders.

E-mail: sfainfo@successforall.org
Website: www.successforall.org

strong evidence

Direct Instruction/ Corrective Reading


A highly structured, phonetic approach to reading instruction that emphasizes phonics, a step-by-step instructional approach, and direct teaching of comprehension skills, as well as extensive professional development and follow-up.

E-mail: info@nifdi.org
Website: www.nifdi.org

strong evidence Peer Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) CIP A technique in which children work in pairs, taking turns as teacher and learner, to learn a structured sequence of literacy skills, such as phonemic awareness, phonics, sound blending, passage reading, and story retelling. E-mail: pals@venderbilt.edu
Website: kc.vanderbilt.edu/pals
strong evidence Reading Recovery TT Provides the lowest achieving readers (lowest 20%) in first grade with supplemental tutoring in addition to their regular reading classes.

E-mail: info@readingrecovery.org
Website: www.readingrecovery.org

strong evidence Targeted Reading Intervention TT A one-to-one tutoring model in which classroom teachers work individually with struggling readers in kindergarten or first grade for 15 minutes a day. The 1-1 sessions focus on re-reading for fluency (2 min.), word work (6 min.), and guided oral reading (7 min.).

E-mail: lynnevf@email.unc.edu
Website: www.targetedreadingintervention.org

strong evidence Quick Reads SGT

A supplementary program designed to increase fluency, build vocabulary and background knowledge, and improve comprehension.

Website: www.quickreads.org
E-mail: quickreads@textproject.org

strong evidence One-to-One Teacher Tutoring with Phonics Emphasis* TT

1) Auditory Discrimination in Depth (TT)
2) Early Steps/Howard Street Tutoring (TT)
3) Intensive Reading Remediation (TT)
4) Reading Rescue (TT)
5) Reading with Phonology (TT)

1) Website: www.lindamoodbell.com/programs/lips.html
2) E-mail: morrisrd@appstate.edu
3) E-mail: blachman@syr.edu
4) Website: www.readingrescue.org
5) E-mail:crl@psych.york.ac.uk

strong evidence

One-to-One Paraprofessional/ Volunteer Tutoring with Phonics Emphasis*

T-Para/ Volunteer

1) Sound Partners (T-Para)
2) The Reading Connection (T-Para)
3) SMART (T-Para)
4) Reading Rescue (T-Para)
5) Howard Street Tutoring (T-Para)
6) Book Buddies (T-Volunteer)

1) E-mail: patriciav@ori.org
Website: www.voyagersopris.com/curriculum/subject/literacy/sound-partners
2) Website: www.thereadingconnection.org
3) Website: www.getsmartoregon.org
4) Website: www.readingrescue.org
5) E-mail: morrisrd@appstate.edu
6) E-mail: mai@virginia.edu

Moderate Evidence of Effectiveness
Rating Program Type Description Contact / Website
moderate evidence Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) CIP A cooperative learning program designed to help students develop metacognitive strategies for comprehending narrative and expository text. E-mail: sfainfo@successforall.org
Website: www.successforall.org

TT=One-to-One Tutoring by Teachers; T-Para/Volunteers=One-to-One Tutoring by Paraprofessionals and Volunteers; SGT=Small Group Tutorials; CIP=Classroom Instructional Process Approaches; CIP+T=Classroom Instructional Process Programs with Tutoring; IT=Instructional Technology.

* These are similar one-to-one tutoring programs. Each has evidence of effectiveness from studies with sample sizes too small to qualify for “strong evidence” on their own.

Evidence Rating:

See Review Methods for an explanation of Ratings.

strong evidenceStrong Evidence of Effectiveness

moderate evidenceModerate Evidence of Effectiveness


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