This review examines research on the effectiveness of educational technology applications for enhancing mathematics achievement in K-12 classrooms. It applies rigorous, consistent inclusion standards to focus on studies that meet high methodological standards. Three key research questions are addressed:

- Do education technology applications improve mathematics achievement in K-12 classrooms as compared to traditional teaching methods without education technology?
- What study and research features moderate the effects of education technology applications on student mathematics achievement?
- Large-scale randomized studies by Dynarski and Campuzzano found near-zero effects of modern CAI programs on math achievement. Do other high-quality studies agree or disagree with these findings?

A total of 74 qualifying studies, with a total sample size of 56,886 K-12 students, are included in the final analysis. Three major categories of education technology are reviewed:

**Computer-managed learning**, which included only Accelerated Math. This program uses computers to assess students’ mathematics levels, assign mathematics materials at appropriate levels, score tests on this material, and chart students’ progress.**Comprehensive models**, such as Cognitive Tutor and I Can Learn, use computer-assisted instruction along with non-computer activities as the students’ core approach to mathematics.**Supplemental CAI technology**, which consists of individualized computer-assisted instruction (CAI). Supplemental CAI programs, such as Jostens, PLATO, Larson Pre-Algebra, and SRA Drill and Practice, provide additional instruction at students’ assessed levels of need to supplement traditional classroom instruction.

Findings of the review indicate that educational technology applications produce a positive but small effect (ES=+0.16) on mathematics achievement. In particular, supplemental CAI had the largest effect, with an effect size of +0.19. The other two categories, computer-managed learning and comprehensive models, had a much smaller effect size, +0.09 and +0.06, respectively.

**Technical Report**

**Published Report**

Cheung, A., & Slavin, R. E. (2013). The effectiveness of educational technology applications for enhancing mathematics achievement in K-12 classrooms: A meta-analysis.* Educational Research Review, 9*, 88-113.

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